OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the feasibility of performing a comprehensive cardiac computed tomographic (CT) examination incorporating stress and rest myocardial perfusion imaging together with coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). Background: Although cardiac CT can identify coronary stenosis, very little data exist on the ability to detect stress-induced myocardial perfusion defects in humans.
METHODS: Thirty-four patients who had a nuclear stress test and invasive angiography were included in the study. Dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) was performed as follows: 1) stress CT: contrast-enhanced scan during adenosine infusion; 2) rest CT: contrast-enhanced scan using prospective triggering; and 3) delayed scan: acquired 7 min after rest CT. Images for CTA, computed tomography perfusion (CTP), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were each read by 2 independent blinded readers.
RESULTS: The DSCT protocol was successfully completed for 33 of 34 subjects (average age 61.4 +/- 10.7 years; 82% male; body mass index 30.4 +/- 5 kg/m(2)) with an average radiation dose of 12.7 mSv. On a per-vessel basis, CTP alone had a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 80% for the detection of stenosis > or =50%, whereas SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging had a sensitivity of 67% and a specificity of 83%. For the detection of vessels with > or =50% stenosis with a corresponding SPECT perfusion abnormality, CTP had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 74%. The CTA during adenosine infusion had a per-vessel sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 73%, and negative predictive value of 98% for the detection of stenosis > or =70%.
CONCLUSIONS: Adenosine stress CT can identify stress-induced myocardial perfusion defects with diagnostic accuracy comparable to SPECT, with similar radiation dose and with the advantage of providing information on coronary stenosis.
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