Incremental Prognostic Value of Coronary CT Angiography in Patients With Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

OBJECTIVES: Multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCTCA) is capable of detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) with a high diagnostic accuracy. In particular, this technique is credited with having a negative predictive value close to 100%. However, data about the prognostic value of MDCTCA are currently lacking. We sought to determine the prognostic value of MDCTCA in patients with suspected but undocumented CAD and, in particular, the incremental prognostic value as compared with clinical risk and calcium scoring.

METHODS: A total of 441 patients (age, 59.7+/-11.6 years) with suspected CAD underwent MDCTCA to evaluate the presence and severity of the disease. Patients were followed up as to the occurrence of hard cardiac events (cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and unstable angina requiring hospitalization).

RESULTS: Coronary lesions were detected in 297 (67.3%) patients. During a mean follow-up of 31.9+/-14.8 months, 44 hard cardiac events occurred in 40 patients. CT calcium scoring showed a statistically significant incremental prognostic value as compared to a baseline clinical risk model (P=0.018), whereas MDCTCA provided an additional incremental prognostic value as compared with a baseline clinical risk model plus calcium scoring if considering both nonobstructive versus obstructive CAD (P=0.016) or, better, plaque composition (calcified versus noncalcified and/or mixed plaques, P=0.0001). During follow-up, an excellent prognosis was noted in patients with normal coronary arteries, with an annualized incidence rate of 0.88% if compared with those with mild CAD (3.89%) and with patients with significant coronary disease (8.09%). The presence of noncalcified or mixed plaques, regardless of lesion severity, was found to be the strongest predictor of events (P<0.0001) as a potential marker of plaque vulnerability.

CONCLUSIONS: MDCTCA provides independent and incremental prognostic information as compared to baseline clinical risk factors and calcium scoring in patients with suspected CAD.

PMID: 20460497

Posted in Computed Tomography and tagged , , , , , , , .

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  1. See also:
    Joëlla E. van Velzen, Joanne D. Schuijf, Fleur R. de Graaf, Eric Boersma, Gabija Pundziute, Fabrizio Spanó, Mark J. Boogers, Martin J. Schalij, Lucia J. Kroft, Albert de Roos, J. Wouter Jukema, Ernst E. van der Wall, and Jeroen J. Bax
    Diagnostic performance of non-invasive multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography to detect coronary artery disease using different endpoints: detection of significant stenosis vs. detection of atherosclerosis
    Eur Heart J ehq395 first published online October 29, 2010
    doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehq395

    Abstract
    Aims The positive predictive value of multidetector computed tomography angiography (CTA) for detecting significant stenosis remains limited. Possibly CTA may be more accurate in the evaluation of atherosclerosis rather than in the evaluation of stenosis severity. However, a comprehensive assessment of the diagnostic performance of CTA in comparison with both conventional coronary angiography (CCA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the study was to systematically investigate the diagnostic performance of CTA for two endpoints, namely detecting significant stenosis (using CCA as the reference standard) vs. detecting the presence of atherosclerosis (using IVUS as the reference of standard).
    Methods and results A total of 100 patients underwent CTA followed by both CCA and IVUS. Only those segments in which IVUS imaging was performed were included for CTA and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) analysis. On CTA, each segment was evaluated for significant stenosis (defined as ≥50% luminal narrowing), on CCA significant stenosis was defined as a stenosis ≥50%. Second, on CTA, each segment was evaluated for atherosclerotic plaque; atherosclerosis on IVUS was defined as a plaque burden of ≥40% cross-sectional area. CTA correctly ruled out significant stenosis in 53 of 53 (100%) patients. However, nine patients (19%) were incorrectly diagnosed as having significant lesions on CTA resulting in sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of 100, 85, 81, and 100%. CTA correctly ruled out the presence of atherosclerosis in 7 patients (100%) and correctly identified the presence of atherosclerosis in 93 patients (100%). No patients were incorrectly classified, resulting in sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of 100%.
    Conclusions The present study is the first to confirm using both CCA and IVUS that the diagnostic performance of CTA is superior in the evaluation of the presence or the absence of atherosclerosis when compared with the evaluation of significant stenosis.

    - and post from August 30, 2009:

    Incremental Prognostic Value of Multi-Slice Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography Over Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease.
    van Werkhoven JM, Schuijf JD, Gaemperli O, Jukema JW, Kroft LJ, Boersma E, Pazhenkottil A, Valenta I, Pundziute G, de Roos A, van der Wall EE, Kaufmann PA, Bax JJ.
    Eur Heart J. 2009; 30(21):2622-2629.
    PMID: 19567382

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