Patients with or receiving potentially cardiotoxic treatment for cancer are susceptible to developing decrements in left ventricular mass, diastolic function, or systolic function. They may also experience valvular heart disease, pericardial disease, or intracardiac masses. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance may be used to assess cardiac anatomy, structure, and function and to characterize myocardial tissue. This combination of features facilitates the diagnosis and management of disease processes in patients with or those who have survived cancer. This report outlines and describes prior research involving cardiovascular magnetic resonance for assessing cardiovascular disease in patients with or previously having received treatment for cancer.