Tools for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

In less than fifteen years, as a non-invasive imaging option, cardiovascular MR has grown from a being a mere curiosity to becoming a widely used clinical tool for evaluating cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is now routinely used to study myocardial structure, cardiac function, macro vascular blood flow, myocardial perfusion, and myocardial viability. For someone entering the field of cardiac MR, this rapid pace of development in the field of CMRI might make it difficult to identify a cohesive starting point.

In this brief review, we have attempted to summarize the key cardiovascular imaging techniques that have found widespread clinical acceptance. In particular, we describe the essential cardiac and respiratory gating techniques that form the backbone of all cardiovascular imaging methods. It is followed by four sections that discuss: (I) the gradient echo techniques that are used to assess ventricular function; (II) black-blood turbo spin echo (SE) methods used for morphologic assessment of the heart; (III) phase-contrast based techniques for the assessment of blood flow; and (IV) CMR methods for the assessment of myocardial ischemia and viability. In each section, we briefly summarize technical considerations relevant to the clinical use of these techniques, followed by practical information for its clinical implementation. In each of those four areas, CMRI is considered either as the benchmark imaging modality against which the diagnostic performance of other imaging modalities are compared against, or provides a complementary capability to existing imaging techniques.

We have deliberately avoided including cutting-edge CMR imaging techniques practiced at few academic centers, and restricted our discussion to methods that are widely used and are likely to be available in a clinical setting. Our hope is that this review would propel an interested reader toward more comprehensive reviews in the literature.

PMID: 24834409

Posted in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and tagged , .

One Comment

  1. Great basic review about cardiovascular MRI!
    The same issue of the journal also provided a number of original and review articles:
    Check out: http://www.thecdt.org

    Assessment of subendocardial vs. subepicardial left ventricular twist using tagged MRI images
    Vahid Tavakoli, Nima Sahba.
    PDF Pages: 56-63.

    Low rate of cardiovascular events in patients with acute myocarditis diagnosed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance
    Luciano De Stefano, Diego Perez de Arenaza, Ezequiel Levy Yeyati, Marcelo Pietrani, Andres Kohan, Mariano Falconi, Juan Benger, Laura Dragonetti, Ricardo Garcia-Monaco, Arturo Cagide.
    PDF Pages: 64-70.

    Detailed cross-sectional study of 60 superficial femoral artery occlusions: morphological quantitative analysis can lead to a new classification
    Mickaël Ohana, Soraya El Ghannudi, Elie Girsowicz, Anne Lejay, Yannick Georg, Fabien Thaveau, Nabil Chakfe, Catherine Roy.
    PDF Pages: 71-79.

    3D morphometry using automated aortic segmentation in native MR angiography: an alternative to contrast enhanced MRA?
    Matthias Müller-Eschner, Tobias Müller, Andreas Biesdorf, Stefan Wörz, Fabian Rengier, Dittmar Böckler, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Karl Rohr, Hendrik von Tengg-Kobligk.
    PDF Pages: 80-87.

    Fast in vivo quantification of T1 and T2 MRI relaxation times in the myocardium based on inversion recovery SSFP with in vitro validation post Gd-based contrast administration
    Christof Karmonik, Adam Malaty, Malavosklish Bikram, Peter Schmitt, Sasan Partovi, Dipan J. Shah.
    PDF Pages: 88-96.

    Noninvasive pressure difference mapping derived from 4D flow MRI in patients with unrepaired and repaired aortic coarctation
    Fabian Rengier, Michael Delles, Joachim Eichhorn, Yoo-Jin Azad, Hendrik von Tengg-Kobligk, Julia Ley-Zaporozhan, Rüdiger Dillmann, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Roland Unterhinninghofen, Sebastian Ley.
    PDF Pages: 97-103.

    Tools for cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging
    Ramkumar Krishnamurthy, Benjamin Cheong, Raja Muthupillai.
    PDF Pages: 104-125.

    Myocardial T1 mapping: modalities and clinical applications
    Christine L. Jellis, Deborah H. Kwon.
    PDF Pages: 126-137.

    Usefulness of MRI in takotsubo cardiomyopathy: a review of the literature
    Andres Alejandro Kohan, Ezequiel Levy Yeyati, Luciano De Stefano, Laura Dragonetti, Marcelo Pietrani, Diego Perez de Arenaza, Cesar Belziti, Ricardo Daniel García-Mónaco.
    PDF Pages: 138-146.

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: fundamentals and application to the evaluation of the peripheral perfusion
    Yaron Gordon, Sasan Partovi, Matthias Müller-Eschner, Erik Amarteifio, Tobias Bäuerle, Marc-André Weber, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Fabian Rengier.
    PDF Pages: 147-164.

    Assessing the end-organ in peripheral arterial occlusive disease—from contrast—enhanced ultrasound to blood-oxygen-level-dependent MR imaging
    Markus Aschwanden, Sasan Partovi, Bjoern Jacobi, Nathan Fergus, Anja-Carina Schulte, Mark R. Robbin, Deniz Bilecen, Daniel Staub.
    PDF Pages: 165-172.

    4D flow imaging with MRI
    Zoran Stankovic, Bradley D. Allen, Julio Garcia, Kelly B. Jarvis, Michael Markl.
    PDF Pages: 173-192.

    Review of MRI-based measurements of pulse wave velocity: a biomarker of arterial stiffness
    Andrew L. Wentland, Thomas M. Grist, Oliver Wieben.
    PDF Pages: 193-206.

    Magnetic resonance imaging as a tool to assess reliability in simulating hemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms with a dedicated computational fluid dynamics prototype: preliminary results
    Christof Karmonik, Y. Jonathan. Zhang, Orlando Diaz, Richard Klucznik, Sasan Partovi, Robert G. Grossman, Gavin W. Britz.
    PDF Pages: 207-212.

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