OBJECTIVES: Cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) is an increasingly recognized cause of heart failure. Cardiac magnetic resonance(CMR), with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and T1 mapping, is emerging as a reference standard for diagnosis and characterization of cardiac amyloidosis. The authors used CMR with extracellular volume fraction (ECV) measurement to characterize cardiac involvement in relation to outcome in ATTR.
METHODS: Subjects comprised 263 patients with cardiac ATTR corroborated by grade 2 to 3 99mTc-DPD (99mTc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid) cardiac uptake, 17 with suspected cardiac ATTR (grade 1 99mTc-DPD), and 12 asymptomatic individuals with amyloidogenic transthyretin (TTR) mutations. Fifty patients with cardiac light-chain (AL) amyloidosis acted as disease comparators.
RESULTS: Unlike cardiac AL amyloidosis, asymmetrical septal left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was present in 79% of patients with ATTR (70% sigmoid septum and 30% reverse septal contour), whereas symmetrical LVH was present in 18%, and 3% had no LVH. In patients with cardiac amyloidosis, the pattern of LGE was always typical for amyloidosis (29% subendocardial, 71% transmural), including right ventricular LGE (96%). During follow-up (19 ± 14 months), 65 patients died. ECV independently correlated with mortality and remained independent after adjustment for age, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, ejection fraction, E/E’, and left ventricular mass (hazard ratio: 1.164; 95% confidence interval: 1.066 to 1.271; p < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Asymmetrical hypertrophy, traditionally associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, was the commonest pattern of ventricular remodeling in ATTR. LGE imaging was typical in all patients with cardiac ATTR. ECV correlated with amyloid burden and was an independent prognostic factor for survival in this cohort of patients.