Anomalous Coronary Arteries That Need Intervention: Review of Pre- and Postoperative Imaging Appearances

Coronary artery anomalies constitute a diverse group of abnormalities, ranging from anatomic variants to those having hemodynamic consequences. This review focuses on major anomalies that have clinical implications requiring treatment, including anomalous origin of the coronary artery from the opposite sinus with interarterial course specifically with an intramural course, coronary artery origin from the pulmonary artery, and coronary artery fistula. Comprehensive imaging evaluation is necessary to precisely delineate the anatomy as well as pathophysiologic aspects of the anomaly before determining treatment options for a specific patient. Coronary computed tomographic angiography provides elegant depiction of coronary arterial anatomy and the relationship of the vessel to the adjacent structures, with the ability to perform three-dimensional reconstructions. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is emerging as an alternative noninvasive imagingstrategy, particularly in young individuals, due to the lack of ionizing radiation and avoidance of iodinated contrast agents. This review describes the roles and recent technical advancements in computed tomography and MR imaging pertinent to coronary artery imaging. Additionally, this article will familiarize readers with the cross-sectional imaging appearance of clinically relevant coronary anomalies, hemodynamic considerations, and complex decision making. The different management strategies used for these anomalies, such as coronary unroofing, re-implantation, bypass grafting, Takeuchi repair, and surgical and interventional closure of fistulas, as well as specific post-treatment complications, are also discussed.

PMID: 28388272

Posted in Computed Tomography.

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