Assessment of Severe Reperfusion Injury with T2* Cardiac MRI in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction

OBJECTIVES: In patients with acute myocardial infarction, restoration of coronary flow by primary coronary intervention (PCI) can lead to profound ischaemia-reperfusion injury with detrimental effects on myocardial salvage. Non-invasive assessment of interstitial myocardial haemorrhage by T2* cardiac MRI (T2*-CMR) provides a novel and specific biomarker of severe reperfusion injury which may be of prognostic value. Objective To characterise the determinants of acute ischaemia-reperfusion injury following ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using CMR.

METHODS: Fifty patients with acute STEMI who had been successfully treated by PCI were studied. T2*-CMR was used to identify the presence of reperfusion haemorrhage and contrast enhancement was used to measure microvascular obstruction (MVO) and infarct size.

RESULTS: Haemorrhagic ischaemia-reperfusion injury was present in 29 patients (58%) following PCI and occurred despite rapid revascularisation (mean 4.2±3.3&emsp14;h). Haemorrhage was only present when the infarct involved at least 80% (mean±SD 91±5.3%) of the left ventricular wall thickness. There was a strong association between the extent of MVO and reperfusion haemorrhage (r(2)=0.87, p<0.001). Transmural infarcts (n=43) showed significantly impaired systolic wall thickening at the infarct mid point when reperfusion haemorrhage was present (21.5±16.7% vs 3.7±12.9%), p<0.0001) compared with non-haemorrhagic infarcts.

CONCLUSIONS: Severe reperfusion injury may occur when there is near-transmural myocardial necrosis despite early and successful revascularisation. Reperfusion haemorrhage is closely associated with the development of MVO. These findings indicate that, once advanced necrosis has developed, the potential for severe myocardial reperfusion injury is significantly enhanced. Frank Gore Womens Jersey

PMID: 20965977

Posted in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and tagged , , , , , .


  1. See also:

    Impact of early vs. late microvascular obstruction assessed by magnetic resonance imaging on long-term outcome after ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a comparison with traditional prognostic markers.
    de Waha S, Desch S, Eitel I, Fuernau G, Zachrau J, Leuschner A, Gutberlet M, Schuler G, Thiele H.
    Eur Heart J. 2010 Jul 30. [Epub ahead of print]

  2. More related data:

    Reperfusion haemorrhage as determined by cardiovascular MRI is a predictor of adverse left ventricular remodelling and markers of late arrhythmic risk
    Adam N Mather, Timothy A Fairbairn, Stephen G Ball, John P Greenwood, Sven Plein
    Heart doi:10.1136/hrt.2010.202028

    Background: Interstitial haemorrhage due to reperfusion of severely ischaemic myocardium can be detected in vivo by T2-weighted (T2W) and T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). The clinical implications of myocardial haemorrhage following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) remain undetermined.

    Objectives: To assess whether the presence of myocardial haemorrhage influences ventricular remodelling and risk of late ventricular arrhythmia following PPCI for acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

    Methods: Forty-eight patients with first ST-elevation AMI, treated successfully with PPCI, underwent CMR at day 2 and 3 months. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were determined from cine-CMR, infarct size and microvascular obstruction (MVO) from gadolinium-enhanced images and area at risk (AAR) from T2W CMR. Myocardial haemorrhage was defined as hypointense signal within the AAR on both T2W and T2* images. All patients had a signal-averaged electrocardiogram at 3 months.

    Results: 30/48 (63%) patients had MVO and 12 of these showed myocardial haemorrhage. Patients with haemorrhagic myocardial infarction (MI) had significantly larger LVEDV and LVESV, lower LVEF and larger infarcts than those with non-haemorrhagic MI at baseline and at 3 months. The presence of haemorrhage was an independent predictor of adverse remodelling defined as increased LVESV on follow-up (p=0.001, OR 1.6) and prolonged filtered QRS (fQRS) on signal-averaged ECG at 3 months (p=0.020, OR 1.176).

    Conclusions: Reperfusion haemorrhage following AMI is associated with larger infarct size, diminished myocardial salvage and lower LVEF. The presence of haemorrhage is the strongest independent predictor of adverse ventricular remodelling and is also associated with prolonged fQRS duration, which is a marker of arrhythmic risk.

  3. See also:

    Martina Perazzolo Marra, Joao A.C. Lima, and Sabino Iliceto.
    Eur Heart J published 25 November 2010.

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