OBJECTIVES: We investigated the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients with midventricular obstruction (MVO). Previous descriptions of patients with MVO have been confined to case reports or small patient series, and this subgroup of HCM patients has therefore remained underrecognized.
METHODS: The study population included 490 HCM patients. Left ventricular MVO was diagnosed when the peak midcavitary gradient was estimated to be 30 mm Hg.
RESULTS: MVO was identified in 46 patients (9.4%). Patients with MVO were more likely to be symptomatic than those without. MVO was found to be an independent determinant of HCM-related death in multivariate models (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.23, p = 0.016), and this trend was especially pronounced for the combined endpoint of sudden death and potentially lethal arrhythmic events (HR:3.19, p < 0.001). Apical aneurysm formation was identified in 28.3% of patients with MVO and strongly predicted HCM-related death (HR: 3.47, p = 0.008) and the combined endpoint of suddendeath and potentially lethal arrhythmic events (HR: 5.08, p < 0.001). In addition, MVO without apical aneurysm was also identified as an independent determinant of the combined endpoint of sudden death and potentially lethal arrhythmic events (HR: 2.43, p = 0.045).
CONCLUSIONS: This analysis identified MVO as an independent predictor of adverse outcomes, especially the combined endpoint of sudden death and potentially lethal arrhythmic events. Our results suggest that longer periods of exposure to MVO might lead to unfavorable consequences. They also support the principle that the presence of MVO in patients with HCM has important pathophysiologicalimplications.